Insight into blood signatures of inflammation

A new study identifies a pattern of inflammation associated with cardio-metabolic risks among participants in the Black Women’s Health Study, as well as two independent groups of vulnerable women. These findings could help under-served patients benefit from precision medicine and personalized profiles of disease risk.

Source: Insight into blood signatures of inflammation: Findings could lead to better clinical decision making for underserved patients — ScienceDaily

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Exercise could make the heart younger: Mice make over four times as many new heart muscle cells when they exercise

After a heart attack, patients must create new heart muscle cells to heal. A new study shows that mice make more new heart muscle cells when they exercise compared to when they do not. This was true for both healthy mice and those that had experienced a heart attack. Findings demonstrate that one reason exercise is beneficial to health is that it increases the heart’s capacity to regenerate.

Source: Exercise could make the heart younger: Mice make over four times as many new heart muscle cells when they exercise, study finds — ScienceDaily

Six years of exercise — or lack of it — may be enough to change heart failure risk

By analyzing reported physical activity levels over time in more than 11,000 American adults, researchers conclude that increasing physical activity to recommended levels over as few as six years in middle age is associated with a significantly decreased risk of heart failure, a condition that affects an estimated 5 million to 6 million Americans.

Source: Six years of exercise — or lack of it — may be enough to change heart failure risk — ScienceDaily

Running helps brain stave off effects of chronic stress: Exercise protects vital memory and learning functions

The study finds that running mitigates the negative impacts chronic stress has on the hippocampus, the part of the brain responsible for learning and memory.

Source: Running helps brain stave off effects of chronic stress: Exercise protects vital memory and learning functions — ScienceDaily

Studies: HIIT, Exercise Volume, Men v Women

Vol. 4

Get High With HIIT

The release of endorphins during exercise has been observed for some time. The relationship between type of exercise and the magnitude of endorphin release is becoming better understood. “…high-intensity interval training (HIIT) leads to endorphin release in the brain, which might alleviate the physical and emotional stress caused by the high-intensity exercise. A less demanding, traditional one-hour aerobic exercise does not cause similar endorphin release.” The study also found that HIIT causes the release of opioid peptides that control pain and emotions.

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High or Low?

When doing strength training, one of the big differences in how a program is set up is the load, either high or low. A recent meta-analysis has found that “…strength were significantly greater in favor of high- versus low-load training.” The same analysis found little to no difference for the two parameters as far as hypertrophy.

goo.gl/UjQMNR

Anything Men Can Do, Women Can Do…Longer

While there is no denying that men have a greater potential for strength and muscle size, a recent study has found that women have greater muscle endurance than men. “…women are considerably less exhausted after natural, dynamic muscle exercises than men of similar age and athletic ability.” The study had men and women do a simple exercise (flexing the foot against an array of sensors) as fast as they could, for 200 repetitions. The researchers found that while the men were faster and stronger in the beginning, they also tired out much more quickly.

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I’d Hiit that

High intensity interval training is arguably the most effective form of cardio for burning fat and preserving muscle. Yes, H.I.I.T. does both. H.I.I.T. is typically defined as alternating periods of very high intensity exercise (sprinting, cycling, swimming, etc.) with periods of low intensity periods. Despite it being developed long ago by track coaches, it is very useful today. Let’s be honest, cardio can be pretty boring. H.I.I.T. allows people to get more out of cardio sessions and in less time. Not to mention that it can be done anywhere and with no equipment.

Fat Loss

There are a constant stream of studies, but the gist is that H.I.I.T. is great for burning fat, especially compared to steady-state cardio. Depending on the research one can burn fat up to 6 times faster using H.I.I.T. and there are even cases of study participants decreasing body fat by 2% in only 2 months. H.I.I.T. burns more calories faster, and the metabolism is boosted for up to 24 hours following a session, for even more calorie burn. H.I.I.T. has also been shown to promote the utilization of fat for energy.

Muscle Growth

H.I.I.T. promotes muscle growth for the above reason, the body utilizing fat for fuel prevents if from breaking down muscle for fuel. One study found that during a 6-week H.I.I.T. program participants, supplementing with beta-alanine, gained an average of 2 lbs. Of muscle after only 3 weeks, WITH NO WEIGHT TRAINING. H.I.I.T. can increase testosterone production in men as well. Some studies have seen a 100% increase in testosterone levels.

References

Jim Stoppani

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  2. Gorostiaga, E. M., et al. Uniqueness of interval and continuous training at the same maintained exercise intensity. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 63(2):101-107, 1991.
  3. King, J. W. A comparison of the effects of interval training vs. continuous training on weight loss and body composition in obese pre-menopausal women (thesis). East Tennessee State University, 2001.
  4. Meuret, J. R., et al. A comparison of the effects of continuous aerobic, intermittent aerobic, and resistance exercise on resting metabolic rate at 12 and 21 hours post-exercise. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 39(5 suppl):S247, 2007.
  5. Paton, C. D., et al. Effects of low- vs. high-cadence interval training on cycling performance. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 23(6): 1758-1763, 2009.
  6. Smith, A. E., et al. Effects of ?-alanine supplementation and high-intensity interval training on endurance performance and body composition in men; a double-blind trial. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, 6:5, 2009.
  7. Talanian, J. L., et al. Exercise training increases sarcolemmal and mitochondrial fatty acid transport proteins in human skeletal muscle. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab IN press, 2010.
  8. Talanian, J. L., et al. Two weeks of high-intensity aerobic interval training increases the capacity for fat oxidation during exercise in women. Journal of Applied Physiology, 102(4):1439-1447, 2007.
  9. Tjonna, A. E., et al. Superior cardiovascular effect of interval training versus moderate exercise in patients with metabolic syndrome. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 39(5 suppl):S112, 2007.
  10. Trapp, E. G. and Boutcher, S. Metabolic response of trained and untrained women during high-intensity intermittent cycle exercise. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2007 Dec;293(6):R2370-5.
  11. Treuth, M. S., et al. Effects of exercise intensity on 24-h energy expenditure and substrate oxidation. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 28(9):1138-1143, 1996.